Steel is naturally circular: it originates from scrap, thus avoiding waste dispersion and the consumption of additional raw materials. We work to enhance this characteristic.

KPI scorecard





We organise processes and plants to minimise production residues, landfill disposal, and raw material consumption, investing in its replacement and circularity.


Our steel
consists of
recycled material




Steel production, naturally circular


steel production
  • White and black slag

    Slag from the smelting process can be recovered to produce building materials, such as paving and New Jersey blocks. The black slag is processed into the commercial by-product ‘Greenstone’. Feralpi is conducting further studies to develop processes for reusing white slag in building limes, plastics and within production processes.

  • Rolling scale

    Rolling scale is recovered for external use. Green Iron is the by-product obtained from the rolling scale that is sold to plants for the production of ballasts and concrete.

  • Dust and fumes

    The metal zinc contained in the dust resulting from flue gas removal in the smelting process is mostly recovered at external plants in replacement of natural mineral. The dust produced by the ferro alloy plant are fed directly into the production cycle, the amount of which equals that of the materials from which dust originates.

  • Dolomite and spent refractories

    Spent ref ractory materials coming from the ladle are returned to the production cycle, as partial raw material substitutes. The raw material to be replaced is calcic lime and dolomite lime (“CaO cubes” and “40% CaO”) to be used as a slagging agent in the EAF (electric-arc furnace). Their reuse in the furnace does not entail any negative impact on the environment or human health.

  • Non-ferrous metals and minerals

    The residual fraction produced by the scrap selection plant is sent to external plants for the recovery through mechanical sorting of non-ferrous metals (such as aluminium, brass and copper)

  • Heat

    Heat is recovered from the cooling water systems of the Feralpi Siderurgica and the Riesa steel mills, preventing it from being released into the atmosphere.

  • Polymers

    The polymers - sourced only from plastic packaging from separate waste collection - are subjected to sophisticated sorting and classification processes at modern, qualified industrial plants and then to technological treatment for recycling. Such processes transform treated plastic materials into new “circular raw materials” that comply with regulations and quality standards, becoming important resources for various industrial applications.

Circular processes in Feralpi




Since 2023, calculations have also been made for the aggregates produced by the Group, which have the following values:

  • GREEN STONE  ≥ 96.8 %
  • GREEN LIME  ≥ 100 %
  • GREEN IRON  ≥ 100 %